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Issue 5 (24), 2011

GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Ivashov A. V.
To the Question about the Modern Ecology Contents
The article reflects authors point of view on a volume and contents of modern ecology. It is shown that this science during all history of existence has suffered few stages of its expansion. In early 1970th it was completely formed as a fundamental discipline, but at the same time, it was started the new phase of the expansion of subject and tasks, related to the environmental management. Abroad, after the UNO conference on the environmental management in Stockholm in 1972, the environmental management and ecology became independent in the accordance with principles of the accepted Declaration. In Ukraine such division did not happen, and as a rule, ecology and environmental management are still considered as the same discipline. In this connection considered the question about their interaction at different levels.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Bagrikova N. A.
Studying of Segetal Vegetation of Ukraine from the Position of Ecologo - Floristical Approach: History, Modern State and Perspectives
The historical review of syntaxonomical research of segetal vegetation of the Ukraine according ecologo-floristical approach for 19812011 was given.

Budashkin Yu. I.
Additions to Fauna and Bionomy of the Caesarbaer Moths (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae) of the Crimea
The results of original faunal and bionomic investigations on Crimean Coleophoridae (Lepidoptera) are given: Casignetella linosyridella (Fuchs, 1880) = Casignetella loxodon Falkovitsh, 1993, syn. nov., 3 species of Coleophoridae are founded for the first time in Crimea, 2 species of Coleophoridae are founded for the first time in Ukraine. For 12 Coleophoridae-species the new host plants are given, for the Casignetella ucrainae (Baldizzone et Patzak, 1991), C. quadrifariella (Staudinger, 1880), C. gulinovi (Baldizzone et Patzak, 1991) for the first time. For 18 Coleophoridae-species the complete scheme of Crimean annual development cycle are given.

Matruhan T. I.
Biodiversity of bird communities of the small rivers of the Northern Azov region: current state and ways of preservation
The current state and trends of biodiversity of bird communities of the small rivers of the Northern Azov are considerated. It was reflected the seasonal structure of the avifauna (representatives acting for the protective lists of Ukraine) in different habitats of floodplains of small rivers in the investigated region. The features of the influence of factors related to agricultural activity adversely affecting on the bird populations, and areas of natural grassland.

BIOCENOLOGY AND SPECIES

Koba V. P.
Some Features of Natural Populations Differentiation of Pinus Pallasiana in Respect of Fires Adaptation
The features of natural populations differentiation of Pinus pallasiana D. Don are considered in respect of fires adaptation. The characteristic of adaptive attributes of fire stability increase of trees of different type of development was given.

Vakhrusheva L. P.
Spacial Structure of Coenopopulation of Colchicum Ancyrense in Petrophyte Steppe of Krasnogvardeyskiy Region (Crimea)
The coenopopulation spacial structure of Colchicum ancyrense B.L. Burtt in association of Botriochloetum paeoniosum (tenuifolii) were analyzed. The conclusions are given according to the phytocoenotype, of C. ancyrense and connection of spatial location his individuals with horizontal structure steppes phytocoenose were revelead.

Khomyak I. V.
Phytoindicative Characteristic of Plant Communities Transformation of Renewable Natural Vegetation of the Central Polesie
In the article it was analyzed the using of the phytoindicative methods for determine of the degree of plant communities transformation, that occur in the recovery of natural vegetation on abandoned farmlands of the Central Polesie. For the first time the data of plant communities transformation of the Central Polesie obtained by phytoindicative method are represented.

Zhaldak S. M.
Ecologo - Coenotic Peculiarities of Ambrosia Artemisiifolia in the Conditions of Premountain’s of the Crimea
Eco-coenotic peculiarities of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. in the conditions of premountains of Crimea were studied. In these conditions the increasing of invasive species, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, is characterized by stable life-cycle, corresponding to the rhythm of climatic conditions, all phases of phenological development and high seed productivity.

Hablak S. G., Abdullaev J. A.
Structure of Root System of Arabidopsis Thaliana at the Mutant Strain G Protein Alpha Subunit1-3 (gpa1-3)
The features of the structure of the root system of plants mutant lines gpa1-3 Arabidopsis thaliana was studied. It was established that plant lines gpa1-3 are formed tap root system, which has a strongly developed of taproot which distinguish among the branched lateral roots.

Kurtseitova E. E.
The Studying of Oil Content and Quality Composition of Essential Oil of Ecotypes Species of the Genus Mentha of the Crimean Flora
The variability of mass portion and essential oil component structure of two wild species of the Crimean flora, Mentha longifolia and M. spicata was investigated. It was demonstrated the significant intraspecific variability of these features that gives a lot of opportunities for selection of initial forms while selective work.

Fateryga A. V.
The pollinators’ composition in the species from the genus Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae) in the flora of Crimea with special reference to diplopterous wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)
The pollinators composition has been studied in the five species of figworts of the seven ones growing in Crimea: Scrophularia umbrosa, S. nodosa, S. scopolii, S. variegata subsp. rupestris and S. canina subsp. bicolor. Diplopterous wasps are the most effective and specialized pollinators in the majority of the studied species. Vespidophilous pollinating syndrome is typical for the species from the section Scrophularia (S. umbrosa, S. nodosa and S. scopolii) and syrphidophilous one for S. canina subsp. bicolor (section Canina). The pollinators composition in S. variegata subsp. rupestris is known insufficiently. Morphometric parameters of the flowers in the studied species have been given and their relations with pollinators composition have been discussed. All species from the family Vespidae recorded on the figworts flowers with number of studied specimens have been listed. The hypothesis of wasp-pollination as the plesiomorphic character of the genus Scrophularia was speculated. On this view the species from the section Canina had changed their pollination syndrome to pollination mostly by hoverflies via the deficit of the diplopterous wasps as the effective pollinators in the open landscapes. The new key to identification of the species from the genus Scrophularia in the flora of Crimea has been proposed.

Ivanov S. P., Kobetskaya M. A.
Deviations in the order of sex displacement and violations of the «mass – gender» concordance in the nests of megachilid-bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Megachilidae). Report I
Deviations in the displacement order of the bees of the different sex in the nest cells and cases of mass sex discordance have been studied on the basis of the analysis of the composition of 2 492 nests of 9 megachilid-bees species. The deviations and discordances have been revealed in all species under study. The deviations and discordances occur with varying frequency depending on nesting conditions and individual masses of the females.

Ivanov S. P., Fateryga A. V.
Construction of the Nests in the Bee, Osmia Dimidiata (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Megachilidae) Discovered in Trap - Nests in Crimea
The construction of nests in the wild bee, Osmia dimidiata Morawitz, 1870 has been studied, notably: shape and placement of the partitions, shape of the pollen-loaf, construction of the cocoon, sex ratio and distribution of females and males in the nests. The majority of the nests had been taken from trap-nests made from reed stems (Phragmites australis). Females occupy the inner cavities of the stems with diameter 411 mm and length 530 cm. The majority of the cells are placed in the nest cavity as single ones or arranged in the short rows separated from each other by the empty spaces galleries of 18 cm length. Each cell have own bottom in the form of massive hemispherical partition and own lid as the form of thin flat partition and not have own lateral walls. Females make the cell partitions from mass of masticated leaves. The first bottom and the final plug of the nest have the structure similar with the structure of the cell bottoms but with some more weight. The shape of the pollen-loaf corresponds to the shape of the inner surface of the cell and fills the half of its volume. The egg is placed on the surface of the pollen-loaf in the place which has been good saturated by nectar. The length of the cells with females is half again as much as length of the cells with males. The mass of the cocoon with females are twice as much as mass of the cocoons with males. The cocoon has the medium strength and a peculiar construction of the apical part; the shape of its base part corresponds to the shape of the inner surface of the cell. The cells with the females are placed in the depth of the nest and the ones with the males closer to exit of from nest. Sex ratio varies very much from total female-biased to total male-biased in certain nests. More than half of the nests contain only males and the other ones only females or the both sexes. General sex ratio is male-biased (1+:2.5>). The main regularities in the nest structure of Osmia dimidiata are increasing the weight of partitions and decreasing the length of the cells and the weight of the cocoon with imagoes in the subsequent row of the nest cells.

Rusev I. T., Dashevskaya E. I.
Parasitofauna of Mound - Building Mouse and their Nests from Two Natural Foci of Tularemia in North - West Coast of the Black Sea
Mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882) is one of the main carrier of tularemia pathogen in natural foci of tularemia of the North-Western Black sea region. It is established that the distribution of the burial mounds mound-building mouse in natural habitats and on agrocenoses depends on the geography and climate of a particular season. Nest of mound-building mouse is formed in the center of the mound at a depth of 20-40 cm from the surface of the stern of the camera. In the nests and in mice revealed fleas 3 types: Ctenophthalmus orientalis, Wagner, Stenoponia tripectinata, Tir, and Ceratophyllus tesquorum, Wagner.

Antonets N. V., Yarish V. L., Tovpinets N. N.
The Mountainous - Crimean Fox (Vulpes Vulpes Krymea - Montana Brauner, 1914) in Karadag Natural Reserve
The conditions existence resource aboriginal mountainous-crimean fox (Vulpes vulpes krymea-montana Brauner, 1914) populations in steppe lands haft mountainous Crimea from Karadag Natural Reserve were studied. From monitoring (at the 1983) over condition this species in Karadag Natural Reserve was determined, that here inhabit southern marginal population mountainous-krymea fox. Over time investigation it was marked considerable oscillation of number mountainous-crimean fox across epizooty hydrophobia. It was determined the species composition of mass forages objects fox (plant and animal). The peculiarities of ecology and biology this species in south-east Crimea peninsula was studied.

Simchuk A. P., Ivashov A. V.
Comparative Analysis of Protein Polymorphism in Oak Green (Tortrix Viridana) and Pale (Aleimma Loeflingiana) Leaf Rollers
Eleven enzymes of two ecologically and evolutionary close species, oak green (Tortrix viridana L.) and pale (Aleimma loeflingiana Hub.) leaf rollers were studied in larvae and adults using disc-electrophoresis method. As it has been found, pale leaf roller is more specialized in respect to selection of host plan in comparison with oak green leaf roller. This is supported by the fact that pale leaf roller has fewer isozymes of those enzymes, which metabolize exogenic substrates and, accordingly has fewer loci, which determine them in comparison with oak green leaf roller. Besides, these loci in pale leaf roller are less polymorphous in comparison with its enzymes, unrelated with digestion.

Gol’din E. B.
Determination of the Level of Biocidal Activity of Cyanobacterial Natural Populations
Biocidal activity of more than 40 samples of cyanobacterial natural populations (Microcystis aeruginosa was dominated species) from Dnieper water bodies was investigated. Herbivorous insects (gypsy moth, fall webworm and Colorado potato beetle) were used as test objects. The rates of nutrition, growth, metamorphosis and mortality were analysed. The dominated species was the most important in biocidal action.

GEOECOLOGY

Volkova L. A., Kushniruk Y. S.
Ecological and Geographical Research of Rivne Region Territory
Ecological and geographical research of Rivne region was carried out. The ways of ecological risk determination based on geo-ecological analysis of the area are examined. The impact of geographical features on human health, as well as regularities of disease spreading depending on geo-ecological and anthropogenic factors is studied. It was developed the criteria of administrative areas behind a degree of ecological risk for residing the population. The integrated parameters of ecological and medical and demographical risk factors were designed.

Yegorova N. A.
The Development of Methodological Basic of Lavender Cell Selection in Vitro for NaCl Tolerance
The peculiarities of salt stress effect on the development callus tissues of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) during several passages were investigated. The sublethal NaCl concentrations have been determined, and selection of resistant lines were carrying out. It was shown the influence on the callus culture salinity tolerance the initial passage, variety, colchicine treatment and duration of stress factor action.