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Issue 6 (25), 2012

FLORA AND FAUNA

Kamenskykh L. N., Potapenko I. L.
About New Species of Adventive Flora of Karadag Nature Reserve
From 1185 registered species of higher vascular plants at Karadag Reserve 50 belong to introduced or adventive species which got on its territory by different ways. Some of them were naturalized and penetrated to native cenosis. It is suggested to include them in the list of flora of Karadag Reserve.

Zil’bervarg I. R., Peskovets S. ., Zil’bervarg E. V.
Analysis of the Plantation Area of the Palace of Culture of Trade Unions of Simferopol
The results of the analysis of technical inventory of green plantations are presented. The estimation of functional peculiarities of the plantations in formation of the spatial structure of the territory of the Cultural Palace of Trade Unions of Simferopol was given.

Andreyeva N. A., Ostapchuk T. V., Liskun O.V.
Bacterio - and Phytoplankton in Shore Enclosures with Dolphins (Kazachya Bay)
During several seasons we have studied sea water bacterio- and phytoplankton composition in shore enclosures where dolphins has kept. It was revealed that microflora and algoflora in these conditions were characterized by various forms. The heterotrophes were the most prevailing group of microorganisms which registered there. Algocenoses were characterized by numerous diatomaceous algae and also Chlorophyta (green algae) and Cyanophyta (cyanobacteriae). The peak of bacteria and microalgae growth takes place in summer. Its considered the prospective application of planktonic microalgae in water quality monitoring in dolphin inhabitation.

Budashkin Yu. I., Savchuk V. V.
The second addition to fauna and biology of lepidopterans (Lepidoptera) of the Crimea
The results of 20042012 original investigations of the Crimean Lepidoptera fauna and biology are presented: 12 species are new for the Crimea, 9 species are new for the Ukraine. Spilosoma lubricipedum (Linnaeus, 1758) was excepted from the Crimean Lepidoptera fauna list, as a result of early misidentification of dark individuals of S. urticae (Esper, 1789). For 43 species of Lepidoptera the new host plants are given. For 47 species of Lepidoptera the early unknown annual development cycle peculiarities are presented.

Protsenko Yu. V., Fateryga A. V., Ivanov S. P., Puzanov D. V.
Digger Wasps (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Ampulicidae, Sphecidae) of the Collection of
V. I. Vernadskiy Taurida National University

An annotated checklist of the wasp families Ampulicidae and Sphecidae deposited in the collection of V. I. Vernadskiy Taurida National University (Chair of Ecology and Rational Nature Using) have been given. The label data of 674 wasp specimens of 29 species from 8 genera have been listed: Ampulex (1 species), Ammophila (7 species), Eremochares (1 species), Podalonia (5 species), Sceliphron (5 species), Palmodes (3 species), Prionyx (4 species), Sphex (3 species). The most part of the specimens had been collected in the Crimea.

BIOCENOLOGY AND SPECIES

Garkusha L. Ya., Bagrova L. A.
Composition, Structure and Modern Environmental State of «Dubki» at the Forest - Steppe Belt of the Crimea Mountains
On the basis of the long-term field investigations and analysis of literary data the composition, structure and modern environmental state of Dubki at the forest-steppe belt of the Crimean foothills were examined. The general description and history of study of these associations are given. The results of the modern state Dubki (few isolated areas) at the External Crimean Ridge are presented.

Gol’din E. B.
Microphytic Algae - Vegetation of Karadag Dolphinarium
Microphytic algae-vegetation of habitat and skin coverings of bottlenose dolphins was investigated in the basins of Karadag dolphinarium. The taxonomic structure, seasonal dynamics of microalgal communities structure, ecological characteristics of microalgal localization and distribution in closed basins and adjoining sea area, their influence to the sanitary and hygienic situation in artificial water microecosystems, and the importance of microalgae in captured marine mammals pathology were revealed.

Rybka T. S.
Zooplankton of Littoral Different Kiev Water Reservoirs and its Seasonal Dynamics
The results of qualitative structure, quantitative development and the structural organization of zooplankton of littoral water reservoirs of Kiev were given and its interseasonal dynamics was studied.

Koba V. P.
Dynamics of Seasonal Shoot of Branch and Needles of Pinus Pallasiana in Conditions of the Southern Macroslope of the Main Ridge of the Crimean Mountains
Results of studying of the seasonal shoot of branch and needles of Pinus pallasiana D. Don in conditions of the southern macroslope of the Main Ridge of Crimean Mountains are given. It was shown, that the temperature of air to the greatest degree influences on growth of branch and needles. Decreasing of air temperature in the first months of vegetation causes reduction of a shoot of vegetative organs.

Pichugin V. S.
The Crimean Endemics of the Genus Scutellaria (Lamiaceae)
Physical-geographic regions where Crimean endemic species of Scutellaria L. growth were indicated. Main reasons of decrease and disappearance of these species population in Crimea were analysed a key to species definition was created. Zoological estimation of the Crimean endemics of Scutellaria. S. taurica Juz. was given and S. hirtella Juz. were recommended for inclusion into the Red Book of Crimea.

Simchuk A. P., Ivashov A. V., Oberemok V. V., Gürbüz M. F.
The Influence of Genetic Heterogeneity of the Pubescent Oak and Oak Leaf Roller on the Adaptational Components of its Parasitoid, Brachimeria Intermedia (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)
Variation in body sizes of the parasitoids Brachimeria intermedia Nees. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) was investigated according to their intraspecific genetic heterogeneity of their host insect, Tortrix viridana L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) and its forage plant, pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.). The genetic heterogeneity of oaks was examined with the use of RAPDPCR method and primer OPA 14. Phenes were used to estimate genetic variation of the leafroller and its parasitoids. The obtained data showed that genetic heterogeneity of the oak leafroller and its forage plant effects on the adaptational components of its parasitoids.

Savushkina I. G.
The Effects of the Individual Characteristics of Different Pubescent Oak Trees on the Species Composition and Density of Herbivorous Insects of the Spring - Summer Complex
The composition of the spring-summer complex of herbivorous insects in individual consortium pubescent oak was studied. The obtained data indicated a significant influence of individual trees on the composition and number of the first concentration consorts presented by herbivorous insects. The individual consortia formed a specific set of consorts-herbivorous that differ greatly in species diversity. In this case, tree belonging to this or that phenological group, and the average size of the leaves on the trees affect on the composition microcommunity and its diversity.

Skliar V. G.
The Peculiarities of the Ontogenetic Development of the Scotch Pine (Pinus Sylvestris) in Various Forest Ecosystems of Novgorod - Sivers’k Polissia
The information about seven possible models ontogenetic development of individuals Pinus sylvestris was presented. The peculiarities of natural regrowth and the representation of these models in different forest ecosystems of Novgorod-Seversk Polesie were studied.

Fateryga A. V., Ivanov S. P.
Pollination Ecology of the Species from the Genus Epipactis (Orchidaceae) in the Crimea
Pollinators staff and pollination efficiency have been studied in the eight species and subspecies from the genus Epipactis in the Crimea. The principal pollinators are workers of the wasp genus Vespula in E. helleborine, wasps from the genus Polistes in E. turcica and wasps from the genus Polistes together with males of the bee genus Macropis; E. microphylla, E. persica and E. taurica are autogamous. The high pollination rate (2853%) in the allogamous species peculiar to E. palustris, E. helleborine subsp. helleborine and E. helleborine subsp. orbicularis; the very low rate (13%) peculiar to E. helleborine subsp. levantina and E. turcica. The influence of coenotic conditions on the pollination efficiency and the possible causes of the ancestry of autogamy among the studied species were discussed.

Kobechinskaya V. G., Oturina I. P., Sverkunova N. B.
Dynamics of Development and Flowering of the Fragrant Orchid (Gymnadenia Conopsea) in the Crimea
The complex studies of the ecotopic terms of habitation, the features of seasonal rhythms dynamics of development and forming of generative organs of the fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br. growing on Dolgorukov's yaila were conducted. It was determined that the structure of cenopopulation significantly depends from temperature condition and level of humidity. The basic morphometric parameters of the studied species, allowing to characterize his age-related stages of development, were revealed.

Ivanov S. P., Kobetskaya M. A., Fateryga A. V.
Nest Composition and Sex Ratio in the Posterity of Wild Bees, Hoplitis Manicata (Hymenoptera, Apiodea, Megachilidae) in the Crimea
The composition of nests of Hoplitis manicata taken from places of its natural nesting in the abandoned nest cells of the wasp, Sceliphron destillatorium, from trap-nests and from Fabre hives with artificial bred nest aggregation of this bee species have been studied. The nests of H. manicata can contain 112 cells. The female rate can vary from 41 to 78% in dependence from nesting conditions. Sex ratio widely varies in the separate nests from completely female-biased to completely male-biased. The number of cells per nest and female rate in the posterity increase in the condition of abundant food resources and decrease in poor ones. The increasing of nest tube diameter affects to increase of individual mass of the posterity but not affects on the sex ratio. The mass of the mother-female have not significant influence on the sex ratio in her posterity. Total mortality in the nests averages 2239% from all causes, including 11% from cleptoparasitic bee, Dioxys cinctus; 5% from Monodontomerus obscurus and 6% from blister beetle, Hapalus sp.

Korolev . V., Brygadyrenko V. V.
Comparative Analysis of Pterostichus Melanarius (Coleoptera, Carabidae) Trophic Preferences in Different Condition of Laboratory Keeping
Data of the Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798) selection of food in laboratory condition are discussed. Food availability was arranged in two variants: 1) freedom of choice of the food; 2) only one type of food without any choice. The trophic relations with Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigni, 1826), Porcellio scaber (Latreille, 1804), Arctogeophilus macrocephalus Folkmanova, Dobroruka, 1960, Rossiulus kessleri (Lohmander, 1927), Megaphyllum sjaelandicum (Meinent, 1868), Forficula auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758), Palomena prasina (Linnaeus, 1761), Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758), Eurydema sp., Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus, 1758), Leistus ferrugineus (Linnaeus, 1758), Poecilus versicolor (Sturm, 1824), Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Fabricius, 1787), P. anthracinus (Illiger, 1798), Calathus erratus (Sahlberg, 1827), C. fuscipes (Goeze, 1777), Harpalus tardus (Panzer, 1797), H. amplicollis Menetries, 1848, H. griseus (Panzer, 1797), H. rufipes (De Geer, 1774), Anisodactilus binotatus (Fabricius, 1787), Licinus depressus (Paykull, 1790), Drusilla canaliculata (Fabricius, 1787), Aleochara curtula Goeze, 1777, Aclypaea undata (Muller, 1776), Onthophagus coenobita (Herbst, 1787), Melolontha melolontha Linnaeus, 1758, Chrysolina fastuosa (Scopoli, 1763), occinella septempunctata Linnaeus, 1758, Otiorrhynchus raucus (Fabricius, 1777), Myrmica sp., Messor sp., Lasius fuliginosus (Latreille, 1798), Trochosa terricola Thorell, 1856, Xysticus sp., Zelotes sp., Linyphiidae sp. were analysed. P. melanarius feed on many invertebrate species, including pests of agricultury and forestry.

Rusev I. T., Zakusilo V. N., Radkov D. V.
Small Mammals of Virgin Steppe and Anthropogenic Coenoses on the Territory of the Tarutino Polygon
During monitoring of small mammals in 20072010 years on the territory of the Tarutino military polygon of Odessa region the study of their species composition and biotop distribution was carried out, and also their spring and autumn number was revealed. It was established, that in the steppe coenoses of Tarutino polygon currently 19 species of small mammals dwell, among which 5 species are listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine (2009). Among all biotopes of the polygon, the species diversity of small mammals is the highest in the beam systems with tree and shrub vegetations. Number of small mammals increases in the autumn period in all types of biotopes. However, the most high number noted in agrocoenoses. The number of steppe mouse (Mus spicilegus) in the areas of virgin steppe is extremely low. The number is in 55 times below, than in the field of sorghum and in 17 times lower than in the wheat field. In the years of mass epidemics of tularemia small mammals of Tarutino district played the important role as a source of human infection.

Antonets N. V., Balalaev A. K.
To a Question of Diagnostics of the Phone Species of Small Mammals in Dnipro - Orel’s Nature Reserve
In this article the question of determination with the purpose of diagnostics and distinguishes at the field conditions 3-th phone species of small mammals: (Sylvaemus uralensis Pallas, 1811), (S. sylvaticus Linnaeus, 1758) and (Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1778). was studied. The difference of morphometrics exponents at phone species from flood lands and sandy steppe was established. According to suggestion method these species were determined with help of 5-th external diagnostics signs: length of body (L), length of tail (Ca), height of ear (Au), length foot of back paw (Pl) and weight of body (P), that allow reliable determine belonging which that or other species. Thanks to the monitoring (since 1991) for populations state of these species it was determined, that these species of micromammals are distinguished by totality of peculiar morphometrics signs.

Parkhomenko O. L., Parkhomenko T. Yu., Didovich S. V., Melnichuk T. N.
Biological Defense of Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum) from Chickpea Miner (Liriomyza Cicerina) in the Crimea
It have been shown the expediency of using of microbiological means of plants protection on the base of bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis for the control of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plant damage by phytophage chickpea miner (Liriomyza cicerina Rd.). It have been established that the one times treatment of chickpea plants cv. Budzhak and Rosanna by strain . thuringiensis 0376 .o. allows to decrease the chickpea plant damage to 4346%, in comparison with control, and increase of crop yielding in average during 20092011 years of investigation to 0,58 and 0,40 t/ha, accordingly, in comparison with control.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Makarova H. I., Kotov S. F.
Methods of Study of the Interactions between Plants: Experimental and Static Approach
The article discusses two basic approach to the study of interactions between plants in plant community: experimental and based on an analysis of the existing placement of plants, analyzes their strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and constraints.

Kolesnikov S. V.
Application of Remote Sensing Technologies to Determine the Diversity of Steppe Vegetation
The aim of this study is to investigate the possibilities of using remote sensing techniques to assess the biological diversity of plant communities. Studies were carried out on the Donetsk Ridge steppe landscapes in the Ukraine. We found the significant correlation (0.9, Spearman rank correlation, p<0.05) between the steppe landscapes biodiversity and dinamics of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 1986 to 2011.

GEOECOLOGY

Volkova L. A., Orlov V. O.
Environmental Aspects of Surface Waters Using in the Western Ukrainian Polissia
In this article eco-geographical materials of investigations of water resources of Rivne region river basins at indicators of iron content are presented. Specifics of Polissia region surface water are natural high content of iron compounds. The map of the surface water quality indicators for the iron content is given at the first time. In this area surface water and groundwater are used for needs of the various branches of economics. Activities and methods for removal of iron from water for possible use for drinking and household needs of population and industrial enterprises are offered. Solving of these issues is an important economic, environmental and social problem which is highly relevant and it has scientifical, theoretical and practical importance.

Orlov V. O., Volkova L. A., Litvinenko L. L.
Ecological Aspects of Superficial Flow Use for Signup of Circulating Water of Industrial Enterprise Systems
Possibility of the use of rain and melted waters in the circulating water of industrial enterprise system is considered for a decline of level of the anthropogenic loading on water objects. This question is decided on the basis of quantitative and quality estimation of superficial flow. Possibility to warn contamination of the river Ustia, provide the economy of amount of the water taken away from the small river Ustia, promote the coefficient of the use of water resources is revealed in research.

Partyka T., Hamkalo Z., Bedernichek T.
The Peculiarities of Quantitative Changes of Water - Soluble Organic Matter in Wetland Soils of Upper Dnister Peredkarpattya due to Peat Fires
The impact of peat fires on water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in wetland soils was studied in this article. The profile changes of WSOM content and actual acidity of peats were explored. It was found that soil organoprofile was transformed at least 25 cm deep. The most significant changes were observed in top 10-cm layer: the content of cold (20C) water-soluble organic matter decreased in 2.5 times, and hot (80C) in almost 4 times. These changes were attended by an increase of pH from 4.1 to 6.5 in 05 cm layer of peat and from 4.5 to 5.2 at depth of 2025 cm.

Zhurba R. G.
Probability Analysis of the Infection of Colibacillus by the Genetically Modified DNA Fragments for the Example of Soya Bean GTS40-3-2
This article the probability analysis of the infection of Escherichia coli by the genetically modified DNA fragments of soya bean GTS40-3-2 was presented. Analysis of thermal stability showed that even long heating with temperature 96 doesnt lead to serious destruction of those fragments. Analysis of excrements of the rat that was fed up by genetically modified soya beans for the presence of genetically modified fragments showed negative result.

Rudenko N. V.
The Analysis of Risk of Population Morbidity in Dependence of Air Quality
The Dependences of morbidity risk based on the characteristics of zonal distribution of air pollution were established. Priority chemicals that have the greatest value not form carcinogenic risk to public health were defined. At-risk population of Kyiv, living in dangerous areas of air pollution was calculated.

Mykhalska L. ., Schwartau V. V., Omelchuk S. T.
Determination of Florasulam Residues in Winter Wheat
The features of florasulam metabolism in wheat plants including under the joint action of herbicide Derby 175 SC, s.c. in combination with graminicide Axial 045 E .e. and urea were investigated. It was established that the use of Derby in compositions with Axial and urea does not increase the florasulam and metabolite DE 570 BN residues in winter wheat grain.