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Issue 7 (26), 2012

Bokov V. A.
Problems and Prospects of Conservation and Restoration of Biological and Landscape Diversity in the Crimea and Results of the II International Conference «Biodiversity and Sustainable Development»
The paper discusses the problems and prospects of conservation and restoration in the Crimea of biological and landscape diversity, and summarizes the main results of the II International Scientific-Practical Conference «Biodiversity and Sustainable Development», which was held September 12–16, in Simferopol, Ukraine.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Pozachenyuk K. A.
Floristic Relations of Crimea in Terms of Positional Relationship
Positional analysis of floristic relations of Crimea is given. The arealogic structure of Crimean flora is analyzed with the release: ancient-Mediterranean, Eurasian, Holarctic geographical elements. It is proved that the distribution of boreal and palaearctic and Mediterranean floristic complexes is determined not so much of environmental conditions of individual regions of the Crimean mountains, as their ancient position to routes of floras migration.

Baktybaeva Z. B., Yamalov S. M.
Flora and Vegetation of the Rivers of the Bashkir Trans - Urals Steppe Zone
The investigations of the flora and vegetation of the rivers of the steppe zone of the Bashkir Trans-Urals was carried out. The flora of vascular plants includes 115 species and hybrids of the 62 genera and 32 families. Watercourses vegetation includes 3 classes, 9 orders, 12 alliances, 31 associations and 4 communities.

Olijnyk . .
The flora of the Bystrytsjko-Tlumatsjke pillya
The flora of the Bystrytsjko-Tlumatsjke pillya old-fields counts 308 plant species, which belong to 203 genera and join into 63 families. The systematic structure, the relation of plant species to moistening and trophic opportunities, and also the ecotope lighting were analyzed. Biomorphological and florocoenotic structure of flora of the old-fields are presented.

Lokhova D. S.
Species Composition, Ecological and Phytogeographical Characteristics of Glass Plates Periphyton Diatoms at Different Terms of their Exposure (Karantinnaya Bay, The Black Sea)
In Karantinnaya ay of the Black Sea species composition of glass plates periphyton diatoms were studied during 2007 2008 years and 2011 2012 years. Their ecological and phytogeographical characteristics were given. 102 taxa of Bacillariophyta were found belonged to 2 classes, 14 orders, 24 families, 49 genera. Benthic species were dominated (84 %). Index of species similarity of Chekanowski - Sorensen was 0.6 for two experiments. For periphyton flora marine (54 %) and marine-brackish (41 %) species and arctic-boreal-tropical forms (28 %) are typical. It was found, that the massive diatoms development is observed in the winter-spring season regardless of exposition terms of plates in the sea.

Moiseeva E. V., Baranova T. V., Voronin A. A., Kuznetsov B. I.
Collection of the Plants Genus Rhododendron (Rhododendron) in the Botanical Garden B. M. Kozo-Polyansky, Voronezh State University
It has been adapted growing plants of the genus Rhododendron L. to the conditions of the Central Black Earth region. The study of ecological and biological characteristics of members of the genus Rhododendron collection has been carried out. It has been identified five of the most promising species for cultivation in the Central Black Earth based on the data analysis of drought resistance and hardiness.

Kharkevych Kh. O.
The First Investigation of Fauna and Ecology of Tardigrades (Tardigrada) of Karkinitsky Bay (Crimea, Black Sea)
The first data on investigation of the fauna and ecology of tardigrada in Karkinitsky Bay (August 2011) are presented in this work. New for the Black Sea fauna species of tardigrades Styraconyx qivitoq, S. nanoqsunguak and Megastygarctides sp. n., belonging to two genera Styraconyx and Megastygarctides respectively, to one family Halechiniscidae, class Heterotardigrada were found. The species structure and quantitative development of tardigrades in meiobenthic community were studied. Morphological descriptions of the detected species of tardigrades were presented. Information on their environmental characteristics and habitats was completed.

Anufriieva E. V., Shadrin N. V.
Crustacean Diversity in Hypersaline Chersoness Lake (Crimea)
Hypersaline water bodies are among the most extreme habitats on our planet. Hypersaline Chersonessk Lake closed marine lagoon is an example of such habitat. It is located in SW part of the Crimea near Sevastopol. Crustacea are a most common and abundant group of animals in the lake. During 12-years study 14 species of Crustacea were found here. The highest salinity under which active Crustacea was found is 290. The salinity is a very important, but not single factor which influence on Crustacean taxon composition in the lake. Biotic relations play the more important role in forming of Crustacean taxocen structure under salinities below 120-160. Taking into account a natural importance and uniqueness of this water body we need to continue its study and protect, its It is possible to include it in closely situated the National Nature Reserve Bukhta Kazachya.

Nitochko M. I.
Structure and Dynamic of Population of Ground Beetles and Tenebrionid Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Tenebrionidae) of Sand Steppe of Black Sea Biosphere Reserve NAS of Ukraine
The article reports the results of long-term monitoring studies of population of ground beetles and tenebrionid beetles in the arenas subdistricts of Black Sea Biosphere Reserve NAS of Ukraine for the period 20032011 years. Species composition of ground beetles and darkling beetles, structure of its dominance and long-term dynamics of the abundance on a sand steppe of Reserve are described.

Kovalev M. A.
Macrozoobenthos of Rocks in the Water Area of the Karadag Nature Reserve (Southeast Crimea)
In this report we present the results of studies of macrobenthos rocks of Karadag nature reserve in the depth range 012 m.

Hetman T. P.
Ichthyocenes of the Coastal Aquatic Complex of the Khersones Cape (Black Sea)
Based on long-term monitoring using methods of underwater visual observation and recording of fishes, information about the current state of fish communities in the coastal waters of the Khersones Cap (Sevastopol, Black Sea) was obtained. On the analysis of the data we have identified three stable ichthyocenes pelagic, hard and soft bottoms. The work presents data on the taxonomic diversity, vertical distribution and seasonal dynamics of pelagic, benthic and bentho-pelagic fish species.

Shupova . V.
Hoopoe (Upupa Epops) in the Anthropic Transformation Landscape
The analysis of the Hoopoe nesting in the modern transformation of the Habitat was given. The density of nesting birds depends on the extent of forest cover and the area erosion. In regions with unstable living conditions its indexes significantly fluctuate. On average in the north of the steppe zone of Ukraine Hoopoe nesting density was 0.03 pair per km2 in non-transformed habitats, this figure rises to 0.8 pair per km2. In landscapes subject to significant influence of anthropic inhabit 38.2% of Hoopoes. It was shown that the protection and including of Hoopoe in the Red Book of Ukraine is necessary.

BIOCENOLOGY AND SPECIES

Shakhmatova O. A.
Response Hydrobionts to Stress Factors Marine Ecosystems
The survey provides information on the effects of stress factors on the marine ecosystems. Biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic factors were revealed. The role of climate anomalies, which are under anthropogenic pressure can cause large-scale impacts is emphased. Methods for determining the environmental risks have been shown. The estimation of the basic structural and functional and molecular biomarkers in monitoring programs was given.

Gol’din E. B.
Mass Microalgal Species in Ecosystems: Interspecific Relations and Co - Evolutionary Process
In the article it is concerned the modern situation in the Azov- Black Sea basin in the aspect of outbreak of reproduction and distribution of mass cyanobacterial and microalgal species as the producers of toxic and biologically active substances. The methodical approaches and the problems of terminology are discussed in the light of the latest scientific data.

Bryantseva Yu. V., Gorbunov V. P.
Spatial Distribution Phytoplankton Basic Parameters at the Northern Black Sea
For the purpose of assessing the current state of the Black Sea coastal waters the structure and spatial distribution of phytoplankton main characteristics were studied during summer 2011. Materials were collected in 70-th cruise of R/V Professor Vodyanitskiy in the Crimea coastal zone and north-west part of the Black Sea (limited to the Ukrainian economic zone). The level of phytoplankton development was characterized by low abundance, high biomass and species diversity values in the microalgae community. Dinoflagellates dominated by by the population both in number of species and abundance while diatoms dominated in biomass which is typical for the summer period. The large cell microalgae Pseudosolenia calcar-avis (Schultze) Sundstrom with the biomass varied from 96.5 to 2186 mg/m3 contributed from 40% to 95% of the total biomass on the all stations.

Kovardakov S. A., Prazukin A. V.
Structural and Functional Characteristics of the Bottom Seaweeds Community in Kruglaya Bay (Sevastopol)
The surveys of 1989 and 2008 the structural and flows characteristics of algae community in Kruglaya bay (recreation zone of Sevastopol) are mapped. For 19 years the total stock of seaweeds decreased by 1.2 times, the stock of Cystoseira and complementary species of seaweeds decreased respectively 1.7 and 1.4 times, and the stock of epiphytic seaweeds remained at the same level shown. The value of the flows of nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen, significantly redeploy between the elements of the community. Values of nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen flows significantly redistributed between elements of community. The level of flux in 2008 has decreased by 1517%. Despite a decrease in self purification capacity, seaweed community of Kruglaya bay in 2008 was capable of the day uptake the whole mineral nitrogen, half of mineral phosphorus and fully resume fund of oxygen.

Stelmakh L. V, Mansurova I. M.
Ecological and Physiological Basis of Phytoplankton Biodiversity in the Black Sea
The role of abiotic and biotic factors in shaping the taxonomic and species diversity of phytoplankton of the Black Sea was analyzed. A quantitative assessment of the impact of these factors on the basic structural and functional characteristics of phytoplankton was given. It is shown that the biological diversity of phytoplankton of the Black Sea is due primarily to differences in the basic structural and functional characteristics of algae of different taxonomic groups and with different patterns of biotic relationships in the plankton.

Kotyuk L. A., Vergun A. M., Rakhmetov D. B.
Biochemical Characteristics of Dracocephalum Moldavica in Connection with Introduction in Polissya Conditions of Ukraine
The results of biochemical studies of raw plant material of two Dracocephalum moldavica L. (f. whiteflower, f. blueflower) forms in the phase of budding and flowering are presented. It is shown that the highest content of dry substance, ash, protein, total sugar, fat, ascorbic acid, carotene and potassium have been found in the raw plant material, collected during budding phase. It is also found, that plants in the flowering phase had increased levels of fiber and calcium. The qualitative biochemistry composition predominated in whiteflower form, when the component content of essential oil has prevailed in blueflower form of D. moldavica.

Ivanenko O. M.
Consort’s Connection of Populations Aphyllophoroid Fungi of the Kyivske Plato
This work presents an analysis of aphyllophoroid fungi belonging to the host tree species and to the wood substrates in different state: a living tree, dead wood, snags, stumps. There are 188 species of aphyllophoroid fungi growing on 37 species of woody plants.

Dzhulay . A.
Interannual Variability of Pigment Concentration and Light Absorption by Phytoplankton in the Coastal Waters of the Black Sea Near Sevastopol
Interannual and intra-annual variations of chlorophyll a concentration, the relative abundance of accessory pigments, indexes of the specific coefficients and spectrum shape of light absorption by phytoplankton in surface waters near Sevastopol since2009 to 2012 were analyzed. The power-law dependence of light absorption by phytoplankton pigments on chlorophyll a concentration for particular seasons was obtained.

Georgieva E. Y.
Peculiarities of Daily Variability of Phytoplankton North - Western Shelf of the Black Sea in Autumn
The results of investigations of the daily dynamics of phytoplankton in the Black Sea in November 2010 were obtained in an expedition on the research vessel Professor Vodyanitsky. The periods of increase and decrease of the number and biomass of phytoplankton during the day were the same. However, the rate of change of these two quantitative indicators was different. This due to the predominance in phytoplankton small algae Emiliania huxleyi (Lohm) Hay & Mohler with a clear diurnal dynamics. At the same time, several species of algae predominated by the biomass and had different nature of the daily dynamics of this indicator. Therefore the daily dynamics of the total biomass of phytoplankton was weak.

Burda R. I., Ignatyuk O. A.
The Importance of the Reproductive Capacity of Amorpha Fruticosa (Fabaceae) during Anthropogenic Migration
The reproductive capacity of the Amorpha fruticosa L. was considered as a strategic adaptation. During the 20102012 years in four local populations 50 individuals were studied, 1471 inflorescences were selected. The potential seed productivity was decreased from population to population by a gradient of change for the worse habitat conditions from 269 to 108 flowers per inflorescence. The actual seed productivity, other than that gradient, was clearly dependent from the specific weather conditions during fruit set. It ranged from 102 to 42 pods per inflorescence. As a result seed index varied from 72% to 20%. An inverse relationship between the length of the main axis of the inflorescence and the specific actual seed productivity (correlation coefficient r=?0,74) was ascertained. It is suggested that this is due to an excessive number of flowers which lay in the inflorescence (with significant prior ovules) and not fully formed consorts connection A. fruticosa and insect-pollinators. The most important factor habitat for the reproductive development of this alien species in Kiev was luminance level, which was 18100% of full light. The illumination below 15% of full light is defined as critical for generative development A. fruticosa, this case is formed clones which giving no generative shoots.

Ivanova K. O, Kosheleva T. N.
Comparative Analysis of Structure of Species Dominance of Marine Nematoda Assemblages (Sevastopol Bays)
Data of species composition and dominance structure is basic information for modeling responds of benthos community on environmental changes, also to using for long-term observations and monitoring. It has often been considered the single data set that obtained in one season and seasonal structural changes has not been takes into account. The aim of this work is validation of assemblages comparison in relation to seasonal changes of species dominance structure. An analysis of within-year variability of the dominance structure on example of Nematoda assemblages at three Sevastopol Bay area was performed. Assessment of species diversity was carried out by diversity indices (Margalef, Simpson and Pielou), analysis of community dominance structure assumed by dominance curves method. In Omega Bay and in the area of outer road of Sevastopol Bay, where environmental condition has changed significantly due to seasonal storming, the strong differences between diversity measures was shown within-year. Also the big variations of species dominance structure were found between Yuzhnaya Bay under intense pollution load and two other study sites with lower anthropogenic press.

Vakhrusheva L. P., Patlis M. V.
The Character the Present State of Coenopopulation Gymnadenia Conopsea on Dolgorukovskaja Jaila (Crimea)
Data about morphological criterias of age samples Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br., number in natural phytocoenosis and spatial location are discussed in this article. Natural coenopopulations of G. conopsea on Dolgorukovskaja jaila have normal demographic spectrum and high number in natural communities. This species was recommended for conservation in all natural phytocoenosis of Crimean mountains.

Brydzataya . A., Moskalyuk . A.
Morfostructure of the Oak - Broadleaf Forests in Southern Primory as Reflection at the Reconstruction Succession
Phytocoenotic structure of one of the most common forest types is discussed. Officially, the studied phytocoenosis belongs to territory of the Botanical Garden-Institute (near Vladivostok city). It includes oak and broad-leaved forest-forming species, it is entered in the final phase of succession. The high importance of the results for the forest cover monitoring under conditions of constant recreational load was revealed.

GEOECOLOGY

Mashukova O. V., Tokarev Yu. N.
Influence of Heavy Metals at the Light Emission of Beroe Ovata (Ctenophora: Beroida)
Considerable changeability of amplitude-temporal bioluminescence characteristics of ctenophore Beroe ovata Mayer, 1912 depending on toxicity heavy metal, its concentration and exposure duration were shown. Intensity of ctenophores light emission in all experimental groups sharply dip down with the increase of exposure time and proportionally concentration of active heavy metal. Only at 0,1 MAC in some cases is observed an increase of light emission intensity, however, as late as every other day amplitude values in this group practically does not differ from control. It was stated that we can place the heavy metals Zn < Cu < Hg < Pb in this turn according to their growing toxic impact on the ctenophore bioluminescence. Small concentrations of copper, zinc and mercury stimulates B. ovata bioluminescence and the high ones inhibit. Ctenophore light emission inhibition was registered under the lead activity under all investigated concentrations. The high sensibility of ctenophores bioluminescence educed as a result of experiments allows using them as bioindicators of marine environment quality.

Tereshchenko N. N., Polikarpov G. G., Krilova T. A.
Barrier Role of the Black Sea in Regard to 239, 240Pu, 137Cs, 90Sr – Basic Technogenic Doseformative Radionuclides in a Post - Chornobyl Period
The results of researches are presented on determination of barrier role with the use of factor of radiocapacity of the Black Sea in regard to 239, 240Pu, 137Cs, 90Sr basic technogenic doseformative radionuclides in a post-chornobyl period. The values of factor of radiocapacity are appraised for the different depths of sea for these radionuclides, and also value of factor of radiocapacity in regard to plutonium for silt and sand bottom sediments. The use of factor of radiocapacity and factor of accumulation allows to define the role of different components of ecosystem in forming of its barrier role, and also to estimate its value for different radinuclides and describe the features of biogeochemical behavior of every radionuclide, that it is important both for description and prognosis of radioecologycal situation and for planning of measures on minimization of damage in case of the emergency entering of radioactive contamination to reservoir.

Popov A. I.
The Plant – Soil Trophic System is a Basis of Ecosystem Functioning
The conceptual model of functioning of the ecosystems which is basis of the plant-soil trophic system is presented. On the basis of the analysis of scientific literature it is shown that plants together with the soil form uniform trophic system, a basis of functioning of system the soil plant is double trophic communication between the soil and plants, and one of the main functional links of the plant-soil system is soil organic matter. Modeling confirmed that the plant-soil trophic system is a basis of ecosystem functioning.

Lukina N. V., Ryazanova S. V.
Tre Peculiarity of Mycorrhisa in Technogenic Ecosystems
The results of mycorrhisa research in the phytocenosis, which formed on the Verkhnetagilsk power stations ash dump located on the Middle Ural was given in the article.

Scherbina V. V., Maltseva I. A.
Changing of Bluegreen Algae Diversity under the Conditions of Antropogenic Influense
In the article the results of the research work of species diversity and bluegreen algae biodiversity of virgin and antropogenic-transformed biogeocenosis are given. Conclusions about the influence of various kinds of anthropogenic effect upon corresponding indices are made.

Moroz G. B.
Landscape Diversity of Medium - Dry Steppe Pedoekoton of North - Western Prichernomorya
The assessment of landscape diversity of medium-dry steppe pedoekoton of North-Western Prichernomorya has been done. It was determined that pedoekoton between dry and medium Steppe is characterized by a typical landscape diversity in general, the presence of areas with a high value of this indicator.

Vetrova N. M., Gaysarova A. A.
Ensuring Environmental Safety of the Coastal Regions: Features of Legal Field
This article covers the basics of regulatory measures to ensure environmental safety in the region. The legal framework of environmental management in the region as an example of the Crimean region under the authority of the public administration is concretized.