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Issue 10 (29), 2014

Flora and fauna

Gol’din E. B.
To the research of algae-vegetation in Little Utrish
Microphytic algae-vegetation of habitat and skin coverings of bottlenose dolphins was investigated in the lake and basins ofLittle Utrish dolphinarium. The taxonomic structure, dynamics of microalgal communities structure, ecological characteristics ofmicroalgal localization and distribution in the lake, closed basins and adjoining sea area, their influence to the sanitary andhygienic situation in anthropogenic water microecosystems, and the importance of microalgae in captured marine mammal’spathology were revealed.

Budashkin Yu. I.
The fourth addition to fauna and bionomy of the Crimean Lepidoptera
The results of 1991–2014 original investigations of Crimean Lepidoptera fauna and bionomy are presented: 2 species arenew for the Crimea, 1 species (Scythris aegrella K. Nupponen & Junnilainen, 2000) is new for Ukraine. Udea fulvalis (Hübner,[1809]) is excepted from Crimean Lepidoptera faunal list, as a result Udea languidalis (Eversmann, 1842) earlymisidentification. For 16 species of Lepidoptera the new host plants are given, for three from them (Scythris aegrellaK. Nupponen & Junnilainen, 2000, Ancylosoma substratellum (Christoph, 1877), Udea languidalis (Eversmann, 1842)) – for thefirst time. For 12 species of Lepidoptera the early unknown annual development cycle peculiarity are given.

Biocenology and biology of the species

Bayraktar V. N.
Biodiversity of yeast cultures isolated from littoral areas of the Regional Landscape Park «Tiligulskiy»

Gradov O. V.
Chromatographic auxanometry and GC-MS-auxanometry in forest plant species vegetation phenological monitoring based on flavor and gas chemistry principles with automatic pattern recognition (climatic, meteorological, taxonomic and phenospectral)
In this paper we propose a novel auxanometric system which is fundamentally different from all the previously knownanalogues, as it allows a simultaneous monitoring of forest plant species growth together with plant development stages.
I) Unlike the quantitative approach in standard auxanometric measurement techniques with the shoot elongation being the onlycriterion of the plant growth, our system implements a comprehensive qualitative growth dynamics criterion including one-to-onecorrespondence between the chemical analysis of plant molecular emission and the environmental conditions variations, whichallows the feedback analysis between the plant growth / development and the environmental parameter variation. II) This isprovided by the fact that the automatic system during operation in different modes after pattern recognition learning (with thesubsequent completion of the database) allows us to investigate and simulate not only a single plant development patterncharacteristic of a certain standard feature space, but also to study experimentally the response of the ecological feature structureupon the changing of external factors. The above strategy leads to the emergence of phenological, simulating-biogeographical,biometeorological, bioclimatological and ecology-physiological approaches in auxanometry. The system proposed allowsparameter variation in the course of the germination / elongation process monitoring as needed (if this is possible within thebiotron, climatic chamber or the greenhouse used for germination / elongation of forest plant species), with the followingaddition of the spectral and chromatographic data in the form of correlation patterns into the database for subsequent comparison.
III) In the case of experimental phelonological spectral plant germination / elongation with the system described it is possible toprogram and control the temperature using a feedback and thus to predict vegetation initiation accurately. This can byimplemented by summing the effective temperatures or their trend detection, which allows to reconstruct the sequence ofgermination or vegetation of individual plant forms in correlation with the characteristic parameters of the artificial climate (forexample, if known that for maple (g. Acer) the sum of effective temperatures is 156,2 °С, and for linden (g. Tilia) – 739 °С, it isobvious that in the thermal ranking database the linden will be behind the maple). IV) Due to this fact the auxanometric systemdescribed allows automatic classification of forest plants in the model plant communities on a set of characteristics according tothe phenorhythm types or phenological groups using a more scaled classification than in outdated systems. The same fact allowsmonitoring in a climate chamber parameter regulation mode by the plant feedback registration using their molecular emissionsensors in a controlled physical environment, i.e. the registered parameters from the detector can be considered as a signalchanging the chamber operation mode. The system approach described operates in a wide range of conditions and possess anumber of different application fields, so it is worth being recommended for implementation in both field and laboratory practiceof forest engineering.

Kozyr M. S.
Anthropogenic changes in floodplain vegetation of the riv. Seim
The article describes the anthropogenic changes of grassland vegetation floodplain of Seim river in Ukraine. Thecharacteristic of their identity and specificity, and also the their scale on the studied territory was given. Notes which are themost affected plant communities from human activity and shows the effects of changes. The recommendations of theEnvironmental Management and minimize the negative effects of agricultural activities on the river floodplains of Seim river wasgiven.

Kotov S. F.
The influence of perennial halophyte Halocnemum strobilaceum on density and vitality of annual species Salicornia perennans
The influence of perennial halophyte Halocnemum strobilaceum on density and vitality of annual species Salicorniaperennans are established. Density and vitality of S. perennans increases when the distance between it and H. Strobilaceumgrowth.

Moskaliuk T. A.
Life strategies and the use perspectives of Chosenia arbutifolia (Salicaceae) in green industry
The life strategies Chosenia arbutifolia (Salicaceae) are characterized in the article. They were revealed on base of theanalysis of ecological and biological characteristics of species, changing during of the plant ontogenesis depending of floodactivity of the rivers. The areal, histories of the researching and economic importance of it are described. The main reasons of itsabsence in green industry and the most perspective ways of its introduction are considered.

Svolynskiy A. D., Ivanov S. P., Fateryga A. V.
Peculiarities of anthecology of the Provence Orchid (Orchisprovincialis, Orchidaceae) in the Crimea: phenology, spatial distribution, morphological parameters of flowers and inflorescences
The data on flower phenology and spatial distribution of the flowering individuals of orchid Orchis provincialis areprovided for one of the localities of this species at the south coast of the Crimea. Some morphological parameters of theinflorescences and the flowers are given.

Kovalovа M. A., Boltacheva N A, MaKarov M. V., Bondarenko L. V.
The fouling community on the natural hard substrata of Karadag Nature Reserve (the Black Sea)
The modern data (2011–2012 years) about state of macrozoobenthos rocks in aquatorium of the Karadag nature reservewere presented. The 76 species of macrozoobenthos were identified. Abundance of all species in this community in average was20347±371 ind./m2, biomass – 3738±66 g/m2. High dominance of Mytilaster lineatus and low uniformity of species to supposethis community dwells in relatively unfavorable environmental conditions.

Afonina E. Yu., Tashlikova N. A.
Algae and invertebrates of halite lakes of Borzya group (Zabaikalsky Krai, Russia) at the initial filling period
This article presents primary hydrobiological studies of shallow halite lakes of Borzya group (Zabaikalsky Krai, Russia) atthe initial filling phase. Cyclical variations of climatic conditions and high salinity determined that the composition of aquaticorganisms are specific, mostly are stenohaline and euryhaline species, the quantities are law, and the community structures aresimple.

Birulova E. G., Petrishina N. N.
Epidermal structure and anatomy of vegetative organs of Melissa officinalis in connection with essential-oil productivity
It was studied anatomic-morphological features of the organs of Melissa officinalis in connection with its essential-oilproductivity. It was revealed the existence of the epidermal structures: covering trichomes and three types of glandular structures.It was installed them topography by the authorities and is determined quantitative distribution.

Kotyuk L. A.
Biochemical features of Hissopus angustifolius under its introduction in Ukrainian Polissya
The article presents the results of the research of the biochemical composition of the plant raw material and ethereal oil ofHissopus angustifolius M.B. grown in Ukrainian Polissya. They prove that the aerial part of plants is characterized by asubstantial content of protein, cellulose, ascorbic acids and fats. Ethereal oil of narrow-leaved hyssop is of high quality, since thetotal content of its principal components, namely pinocamphone and isopinocamphone, amounted to 82,25 per cent at the phaseof budding and 76,50 – per cent at the flowering phase.

Ivashchenko I. V., Rakhmetov D. B., Slast’ya Ye. A., Ivashchenko O. A.
Chromatographic analysis of ethereal oil and phenolic compounds of Artemisia austriaca under its introduction in Zhytomyr Polissya
Using the method of gas-liquid chromatography we have detected 48 components in ethereal oil of Artemisia austriaca andidentified 46 substances, the main compounds being trans-verbenole (30,77 %), pinocarvone (10,77 %), and sabinilacetate(18,16 %). By the method of highly efficient solution chromatography (HESChr) in the grass of Artemisia austriaca we havedetected 31 phenolic compounds, of which we identified such flavonoids as rutin (0,51 %), apigenin (0,013 %), quercetin-bioside(0,05 %) and the following acids: caffeic (0,21 %), chlorogenic (0,012 %) and isochlorogenic (0,17 %). Amount of phenoliccompounds in the air-dry raw Austrian wormwood is 27,25 mg / g (2,73 %). Rutin is a dominant compound (18,6 %).

Kuznetsova Т. M.
Morphological and biometric characteristics of fruits and seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculushippocastanum) in the Crimea
The results of studying the morphology of fruits and seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. in this article are shown. Theindividual variability of fruits and seeds of the following characteristics: shape, size, weight, quantity of spikes per 1 cm2, seedcolor was analyzed. Individuals differ in the number and spines character of the identified, the variety of forms and coloration ofseeds, that were not previously described in the scientific literature, were diagnosed.

Kostin S. Yu.
Condition and territorially-biotopical distribution of birds of the zakaznik «Karansky» (Crimea)
Results of two-year ornithological study of territory of the zakaznik «Karansky» have been given in article. About 100species of birds (31 % of avifauna of the Crimea) have been determined. 53 species amount them belong to nesting birds, 63 – tomigrating birds, 40 – to wintering birds.

Shupova Т. V.
Black Redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros) in Krivoi Rog city
Adaptation of Black Redstart to life in Krivoi Rog not completed. The Black Redstart a part in avifauna of Krivoi Rog city:0,2–1,8 %. Birds inhabit a city in fragments. Density of nesting of Black Redstart in settlement zone of Krivoi Rog city is 1.2pairs / km2, and on regions is 0.8 pairs / km2. For nesting Black Redstart most the suitability of massifs of individual houses inKrivoi Rog. 42,9 % pairs of Black Redstart of Krivoi Rog nesting in massifs of individual houses. Population of Black Redstart in Krivoy Rog has already reached a high degree of synanthropization. Іndex of synanthropization of Black Redstart on KrivoiRog by +87,5. Black Redstart in Krivoy Rog is classified as species, which preferring areas that are densely populated by man.

Savarin A. A.
Pathomorphological changes in upper jaw of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) on the territory of southeastern Belarus
Pathologies in the upper jaw of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) inhabiting the territory of South-Eastern Belaru, areanalyzed: local perforation, swelling and osteolisis of bone tissue. Suggested that revealed pathologies (except of bone tissueswelling) are not an important factor of animals, elimination.

Zhavoronkova A. M., Zolotnitsky A. P.
Characteristic of the allometric growth of bivalve mollusk anadara (Anadara inaequivalvis) of the Kerch Strait
Morphological characteristics representative of the family Arkovo – anadara (Anadara inaequivalvis) acclimatized in theBlack Sea. A quantitative characterization of connection between the length (L) with the height (H) and convexity (thickness)sink (D) and relationship length with weight (W) of the whole clam, as well as the dependence of the mass shell (Wr), soft tissue(Wm) and hemolymph (Wmj) by weight of the total basin live weight of mollusk as well as the difference lvypuklosti left and rightwing. The data obtained can be used for comparative analysis of population differentiation anadara and culture when grown indifferent habitats of the Black Sea.

Zadorojhnaya G. A.
Modulations of bioelectrical activity of the hippocampus vortex of the rats under the influence of pulsed magnetic field
We investigated the spectral composition of bioelectrical activity of the hippocampus of rats, which were under theinfluence of pulsed magnetic vortex field right and left directions of rotation. We founded that under the action of magnetichippokampogramme rats observed in the reaction of desynchronization. Intensity effect field effect depends from the direction ofits rotation.

Geoecology

Mamchuk I., Pavlenko Yu.
Clustering – direction of development of a regional economy
We show that clustering – is one of directions of the regional economy. Thus creating ekolohooriyentovanoho clusterwithin the industrial or technology park contributes to the ecological security of the region.

Kravtsova A. V., Milchakova N. A., Frontasyeva M. V.
The features of trace elements accumulation by macroalgae Cystoseira in the coastal zone of marine protected areas of the Crimea (the Black Sea)
The concentrations of 21 microelements (Al, Sc, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Cs, Tb, Th andU) were firstly determined or specified in the thalli of brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Borysampled in the coastal zone of the Crimea. Multielement neutron activation analysis was used as an analytical method. It wasshown that the species of plant, the type of the analyzed morphostructural parts and the effect of their interaction have thegreatest impact on the accumulation of the majority of trace elements in Cystoseira spp., while the age factor is not so significant.The concentrations of trace elements in Cystoseira crinita sampled in water areas of the coastal aquatic complexes near Dzhangullandslip coast, near the cape Atlesh (Tarkhankut, the Western Crimea) and near the cape Fiolent (the South-Western Crimea),identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations.

Kunah O. N., Zhukov A. V., Baljuk Ju. A.
The ecomorphic aspect of the spatial organization of the urbanozem mesopedobionts
The results of studying of the spatial organization of soil mesofauna of the urbanozem of the grassland within artificialforest planting have been processed by OMI- and RLQ-analysis methods. Researches are spent to June, 5st, 2012 in OlesGonchar University botanic garden (earlier – territory of park of J. Gagarin, Dnepropetrovsk). The studied plot is situated on theKrasnopostachekaya balka valley slope (48°25'58.29"С, 35°2'17.89"В). The plot consists of 15 transects directed in aperpendicular manner in relation to the talveg. Each transect is made of seven sample points. The distance between points is 2 m.The coordinates of lower left point have been taken as (0; 0). The plot represents artificial grassland with single tree. Thevegetation has typically partum-forest mega-mesotrophic xeromesophilic character (45,76 % – silvants, 38,99 % – pratants;59,32 % – mesotrophes, 38,98 % – megatrophes; 50,85 % – xeromesophiles). In each point the soil mesofauna was studied (datapresented as L-table); temperature, electrical conductivity and soil penetration resistance, and herbage height were measured(data presented as R-table). Soil-zoological test area had a size of 25×25 cm. The soil mesofauna gave been found as beingpresented by 26 species and with total abundance 93,89 ind./m2. In ecological structure of the soil animal community have beenfound such groups dominant as saprohages, pratants and stepants, gygrophiles, mesotrophocoenomorphes, endogeictopomorphes. The measured edafic characteristics have been shown to play an important role in structurization of an ecologicalniche of mesopedobionts community. The usage of morphological or physiological features of animals for an estimation ofdegree of specific distinctions is applicable for homogeneous taxonomic or ecological groups possessing comparablecharacteristics which also can be interpreted ecologically. The soil mesofauna is characterized by high taxonomic and ecologicaldiversity of forms and comparing which by morphological or physiological criteria it is rather inconvenient. Ecological sense ofcharacteristics in different groups will be not identical, and the basis for their comparison will be inadequate. Therefore we applyto the description of ecological features ecomorphic analysis of soil animals. The organization of communities of soil animalsmay be considered at levels of an investigated point, a biogeocenosis, a landscape and regional level. Actually, on the basis oflandscape-ecological distribution of species in ecological space their accessory to ecological groups – an ecomorphes isestablished. The regular ratio an ecomorphes in these functional groups will be reflexion of their organizational structure and anecological diversity. The obtained data testifies to justice of the come out assumption. It is important to notice that fact that thefunctional groups allocated in ecological space by means of the RLQ-analysis, show regular patterns of spatial variability. Thefirst two axes of the OMI-analysis describe 91,11 % of inertia that is quite enough to describe of differentiation of ecologicalniches of mesofauna on studied area in space of first two axes. For average marginality value (OMI=3,68) the significance levelр=0,001 that testifies to the important role of the chosen variables of environment for structurization of community of soilmesofauna. As a result of the RLQ-analysis and the subsequent cluster procedures are revealed three key functionalmesopedobionts groups and role of the edafic factors in their spatial variation. Local functional groups are characterized byecological characteristics which reflect in terms one ecomorphes of property of others, occupying higher hierarchical position.Ascertaining of spatial heterogeneity of the animal community and determinancy of properties of an ecological niche by soilfactors is important result however for understanding of the nature of heterogeneity the spatial variant of ecomorphic the analysiswith RLQ-analysis application has been processed. Within comparatively uniform field the spatial differentiation of the animalcommunity on functional groups has been found. The reality of their existence proves to be true not only statistically, but that isespecially important, substantial interpretation of ecomorphic markers of groups interrelation and indicators of ecologicalproperties of soil as inhabitancies. The variation of environmental properties within microsites leads to rearrangement ofecological frame of the soil animal community. Heterogeneity of a soil body and vegetation mosaic form patterns of the spatialorganization of the soil animal.

Flerko T. G.
Geo-ecological assessment of rural settlement transformation aftermath of the Gomel region of the Republic of Belarus
In that article the analysis of ecosystem exploitation terms in rural settlements and surrounded areas is made, includingimpact of transformation of rural settlement system. The correlation between amount of settlements and ecosystem exploitationwas detected. Under the results of analysis there was a typology of administrative districts made, which could be a basis for thedevelopment of optimal ecosystem exploitation in rural area.

Gidulyanov A. A.
Middle weight molecules as the biomarkers of estimating anthropogenic environmental pollution
The comparative study of tissue-specific differences in the level of molecules of the middle weight in the liver and musclesof the class gastropods (Eubania vermiculata and Helix albescens) class and bony fish (Cyprinus carpio and Carassius sp.). Thefindings suggest the presence of differences in average weight molecules in different tissues and in different representatives ofvertebrates and invertebrates.

Gudakov O. О.
The use of population analysis for estimation stocks of medical plants of the Hetman’s National Nature Park
The method of estimation stocks of medical plants based on morphometric analysis data and methods of populationanalysis is proposed in this work. An approbation of the proposed method in the pine forests of the Hetman’s National Park isgiven for Convallaria majalis as an example of plant species. Research reveals the scientific basis of the proposed method andthe expediency of its application compared with accepted method of estimation stocks of medical plants.

Hamkalo Z. G., Bedernichek T. Yu.
Labile pool of soil organic matter as an indicator of its ecological quality under different land use conditions
The characteristics of labile pool of soil organic matter and chemical labile organic matter (CLOM) changes in the soilunder forest and hayfield were shown. CLOM-C content in 0–50 cm soil layer under the old-growth (over 200 years) oakhornbeamforest was 9,73 mg × g−1 – 33,4 % greater than in the soil under the forest after cutting of hornbeam and 10,71 % lessthan in the soil of hayfield.

Savin I. Yu., Dragavtseva I. A., Domozhirova V. V., Nikolenko V. V.
Features of the soil and relief stress factors for the territory of the North Caucasus
In article soil and relief the stress factors, having key impact on the potential of growth and development of fruit-trees aredescribed. Ways of decrease of negative impact of factors are presented. Examples of creation of ecological cards of optimumplacement of fruit plants in a landscape of Krasnodar Krai are offered.

The Nature Conservancy

Burda R. I.
Integration of invasive alien species control into the management system of the protected areas
A special role in the control of the global phenomenon of invasions of alien species international experts set to the systemof protected areas. A wide variety of protected areas management categories, forming a solid system, are designed to provideconditions for the preservation of life on our planet – biodiversity. The example of the European Community demonstrates thepolicy of integration of invasive alien species control into the management of protected areas as a policy principle of biodiversityconservation and sustainable development. In the face of assessment of the reference value of the nature reserve fund, rationalefor integration of its management and control of invasive alien species as Ukrainian wide policy principle of biodiversityconservation has been provided.

Galkin S. I., Kalashnikova L. V., Doiko N. M., Rubis V. L., Boiko N. S.
Ecological path in the state dendrology park «Alexandria» of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine as a form of social structure of national reservation territory
In the article has been given the information for creating of ecological path – the social natural structure in the dendrologypark «Alexandria» of the National Academy of Sciences. The method, tasks, nomination of creates of ecological path and routesare present.

Potapenko I. L., Klymenko N. I., Letuhova V. Yu.
A landscape art park-monument of local significance of the tourist-recreational complex «Sudak»
The results of dendrological inventory of the tourist-recreational complex «Sudak» landskape park in South-Eastern Crimeawere presented. The park dendroflora revealed 129 species and 9 decorative forms that belong to 82 genera of 43 families. Groupon life forms and the frequency of plants occurrence have been identified. Recommendations to expand the range of ornamentalplants, taking into account local conditions were given.