Optimization and Protection of Ecosystems
Issue 9 (28), 2013
FLORA AND FAUNA
Savchuk V. V., Kajgorodova N. S.
New Data of the Fauna and Biology of the Crimean Owlet Moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae s. l.)
We provide the results of original research of fauna and biology of the Crimean owlet moths. Protodeltote pygarga Hfn. and Mythimna congrua Hb. are recorded for the peninsula for the first time. In addition, we give new faunal data for 34 species previously known from the Crimea by single and not numerous finds. The occurence of Cucullia lactucae Den. & Schiff. in the Crimea requires confirmation. For 40 species we give new data on biology of immature stages, indicating 53 species of the host plants. The life cycle of Eublemma polygramma Dup. and Autophila asiatica Stgr. is studied for the first time.
Shupova T. V., Kotsuruba V. V., Dumenko S. V.
Diversity of the Avifauna of Gurovskiy Forestry
The nesting’s avifauna of different biotops of Gurovskiy forestry are compared during 1992–1994 and 2012.. Insignificant at first glance, the transformation of habitats during this period resulted in a visible change in species richness indicators avifauna: decrease in the density nesting birds, reducing species diversity ornithocomplexes, reducing aligned distribution of species. The most significantly changed the avifauna of steppe’s biotopes, but despite this, it has superior avifauna species richness than forest plantings. Ornithocomplex in the deep forest is the most stable. Reduction of the density kampofil’s nesting and reduction of their relative abundance confirm visually observed increased exposure of recreational load on forest habitats.
Kotov S. F.
The Influence of Intraspecific Interactions on Vitality, Growth and Productivity of Plants in Coenopopulation of Petrosimonia Oppositifolia
The influence of density in coenopopulation of Petrosimonia oppositifolia are established. The increase of density reduces the vitality, growth and productivity of Petrosimonia oppositifolia. With weakening of competition the percent of seminification is increased.
Gol’din E. B.
Biological Activity of Microalgae and its Importance in Interspecific Relations
The importance of cyanobacterial and microalgal species in the system of interspecific relations biologically active substances is the subject of consideration. We have evaluated the problem under the aspects of general biology, biochemical ecology of cyanobacterial and microalgal mass species in the light of their biological activity and interties with organisms of different evolutionary level. Various approaches and ways of using of their biocidal activities in human affairs are discussed in the light of the latest scientific data.
Repetskaya A. I., Voroshilova N. V., Savushkina I. G., Chetvertañk L. V.
Dendroflora of Komsomolskiy Park in Feodosiya
Analysis of systematic, ecomorphological and phytogeographical structure of dendroflora of Komsomolskiy park in Feodosiya was given. The evaluation of green plantations’ health is provided.
Kolesnikov S. V., Safonov A. I.
Definition of Demutation Succession Stages of Steppe Vegetation Using Remote Sensing Data
In the paper we conducted the mapping of the demutation succession stages of steppe vegetation in the Donetsk region, for the first time we have demonstrated the ability to using for this the values of the vegetation and water indices derived from satellite data processing. 5 demutation successional stages were allocated. It was shown the relationship between the above-ground phytomass of steppe vegetation and vegetation index, moisture content in the aboveground biomass and aquatic index. Speerman’s rank correlation coefficient between the indices of wet biomass and vegetation index is 0.94, and between the index of the moisture content and water index – 0.91. At the ordination of each of the stages of succession in terms of water and vegetation indices, they form a set, almost overlapping each other, so we used them for the classification of synthetic «multispectral» image consisting of sets of values of water and vegetation indices. Classification of stages of demutation succession was performed using the method of «decision tree». According to the results of the validation of classification, with the highest accuracy decrypted plant communities, which are the second and the third stage of demutation succession. Also, we provide statistical processing of the results, definition of area of different stages of demutation succession in the areas of Donetsk region, and defined the ratio between them.
Potyomkina N. V., Sevastyanov V. E.
The Results of Green Plantations’ Inventory of Dzhankoy’s Central Park
For the first time since the Dzhankoy’s Central Park was created, the green plantations’ inventory at its territory has been made. 1356 woody plants belonging to 16 orders, 25 families, 44 genera and 56 species had been identified. Their bioecological and chorological analysis as well as phytosanitary evaluation were made. Recommendations aimed at optimizing the existing dendroflora were given.
Vakhrusheva L. P., Biryuleva E. G., Sibirjakova A. Ð., Abdulganieva E. F.
The Ecological and Morphological Criteria of Age Stages of the Crimean Endemic Saxifraga Irrigua
The morphological and ecological criteria which are specific for different age stages of Saxifraga irrigua M. Bieb. are analyzed.The duration of different ontogenetic phases of this species and its number are revealed in different ecological and geographical conditions of the Mountain Crimea.
Petrishina N. N., Nevkrytaya N. V.
Morfo - Biological Characteristic of Artemisia Dracunculus in the Premountain Crimea
Ten samples of Artemisia dranunculus L. in the Premountain of Crimea were analyzed by the complex of morphological, biological and economically valuable traits. Two chemotypes with predominance in the essential oil metylevgenol and elemycin were identified. 18 promising plants from 6 samples were selected by the basic indicators of productivity and breeding nursery was laid.
Zhaldak S. M.
Ecological and Biological Features of Duchesnea Indica in the Conditions of the Crimean Foothills
The ecological and biological features of Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke in the conditions of Premountain zone of the Crimea were studied. The morphological structure of plants, the peculiarities of the phenological rhythm of development of D. indica, the degree of drought tolerance, winter hardiness and resistance to pathogens and pests were analyzed. The prospects of using of D. indica in decorative horticulture at gardening settlements was assessed.
Letukhova V. Yu., Potapenko I. L.
New Data of the Number of Hawthorns (Crataegus) in the Karadag Nature Reserve
The results of the hawthorns’ inventory in Karadag Nature Reserve (South-Eastern Crimea) are presented. The research took place along four routes through the plant groups with hawthorns. The list of species, the number and density of hawthorns distribution in different parts of the Reserve were determined. It was shown that in the Karadag Nature Reserve hawthorns mainly grow on the slopes descended to Koktebel valley. It is proved the necessity of detailed investigation of C. karadaghensis population on the whole area of its habitat.
Nikolenko V. V.
Scale of Quality of Decorative Species, Cultivars and Hybrids of the Genus Fragaria
On the basis of decorative features varieties of the genus Fragaria L. the system of their evaluation have been developed. Four highly ornamental varieties were selected for introduction into the assortment of ornamental plants.
Bugara I. A.
Long - Term Conservation Onobrychis Pallasii in Embryo Culture in Vitro
Processes of long-term conservation of Onobrychis pallasii (Willd.) M. Bieb. in embryo culture in vitro using a combination of osmotic stress and low positive temperature is developed. The possibility of culturing isolated embryos amount 360 days on primary medium for one growing cycle was shown.
Stukalyuk S. V., Ivanov S. P.
Rhytmics of Daily Activity of Seven Species of Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Multi - Species Assemblages in the Crimea
Rhythmics of daily activity of seven species of ants (Formica pratensis, Cataglyphis aenescens, Camponotus aethiops, Messor structor, Camponotus lateralis, Plagiolepis taurica, Crematogaster schmidti) in the alpine regions and on the Southern cost of the Crimea was studied. All species, except C. schmidti, are characterized by alternating short cycles of opposite flows of workers. Period of these cycles is 1–3 hours. Complex rhythm of daily activity is an obligate dominant of multi-species ant assemblages in Southern coast of the Crimea – C. schmidti. Its activity is characterized by the presence of short (1–2 hours) and long (5–6 hours) cycles. Short cycles usually occur in the optimal temperature, long cycles – by the mass outflow of workers from the nest, and, rarely, by the mass inflow to the nest. A coherent activity of C. schmidti and C. lateralis was observed. C. lateralis used forage trails C. schmidti, whilst avoiding the «host species».
Hablak S. G., Abdullaevà J. A.
Theory of Enzymatic Cell Growth by Sprains
A new theory of cell growth by stretching, which explains the mechanism by which hormones stimulate cell elongation is presented. It is shown that the primary effect of auxin is not due to acidification of the cell wall, and the activation of receptors in the plasma membrane of cells, leading to changes in gene activity and the synthesis of enzymes that cause cell wall loosening.
Bayraktar V. N.
Assessment Criteria for Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Yeast Culture in Selection for Biotechnological Use
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Meyen ex E. C. Hansen) yeast cultures, isolated from local zone grape cultivars, which are especially valuable for the biotechnology of winemaking during fermentation of carbohydrates in grape must, were investigated. The main criteria for yeast selection are: quantity of produced alcohol, and quality of wine including: flavour, taste, after-taste, ethanol concentration. Other important and valuable parameters include: the concentration of titratable acidity, volatile acids, and total phenolics in the wine obtained from carbohydrate fermentation in grape musts are very important and valuable parameters. During wine production, yeast cells are affected by several conditions that are adverse to growth (oxidative, temperature, osmotic, sulfitation and ethanol stress). Yeast cells should detect and respond to these adverse conditions. If they fail to do this, alcoholic fermentation can be negatively affected and even stop.
Chmeleva S. I., Kucher E. N., Reshetnik G. V.
The Influence of the Preparation Mival - Agro on the Growth Process of Barley Plants in the Early Stages of Ontogeny
The results of studies of the effect of different concentrations of the preparation Mival-Agro on sowing qualities of seeds and growth in the early stages of barley cultivar Stalker are presented. It was found that presowing complex preparation stimulates the growth processes of barley in the early stages of ontogeny, this effect depends on the concentration of the active substance and maintained throughout the experiment. The best results were obtained by treating the seed in a solution of 0,025% of the study drug. An increase above ground and underground parts of plants both in mass and length was obeserved. It was displaying a stimulating effect of growth regulator concentration in the germination energy, laboratory germination as well as the growth of barley plants (leaf area, wet and dry weight of the aerial part of the substance and roots). The results confirmed the promising use of the preparation Mival-Agro for pre-treatment of seeds of spring barley.
Rubel I. S., Perebenis A. V., Rjevskaya V. S.
Effect of Microbiological Preparation «Emprobio®» to Increase Longevity of Honeybee Workers
The results of the experiment to identify the impact of microbiological preparation «Emprobio®» for life expectancy of bee workers (Apis mellifera L.) are presented. Introduction of probiotic «Emprobio®» to bees’ diet at a concentration of 2 ml per 1l of sugar syrup increases lifespan by 8,32% compared with the control.
Slepykh O. O.
Study of Microbiological and Physico - Chemical Indexes of Wastewaters of the Mine «Pivdennodonbaska Number 3» and their Impact on Crop Plants
Due to the fact that the eastern region of Ukraine is experiencing water shortages for both drinking and for technical purposes, it was investigated potentially alternative source of water supply – mine waters. The object of investigations was the mine «Pivdennodonbaska number 3». The article presents a comprehensive analysis of microbiological and physico-chemical parameters of mine wastewater. With a view to a possible use in agriculture, mine water has been tested on crop plants. It was proved the inhibitory effect of this water on vegetable crops.
Bayraktar V. N., Polukarova L. A.
Biochemical Parameters of Macrophytes in Littoral Recreation Area Aquatories of the Tiligul Estuary in Vernal Period
The macrophyte species composition and seasonal biomass in the spring period was investigated in representatives of green and red algae-macrophytes in each recreation area of the Tiligul estuary. The macroand micro-element content in a homogenate of macrophytes was studied. Hydrochemical investigation of the littoral waters and surface and deep layers of the soil in the recreational areas of the Tiligul estuary was carried out. In red algae-macrophytes, a high correlation was noted between the following parameters: potassium and sodium; potassium and calcium; potassium and magnesium; sodium and chloride; calcium and chloride; and magnesium and chloride. A very high correlation between potassium and chloride was also noted. In green algae-macrophytes, there is a high correlation between indices such as: phosphorus and iron. We found that the biomass of algae-macrophytes across five recreational areas was highest in the «Atamanskaya Kosa» sector, both in the composition of macrophyte species and their biomass, while the lowest was observed in the «Tashinskoe» recreational area. We conducted complex measurements in the spring season, which allowed us to establish the ecological status of Tiligul estuary coastal waters.
Gudakov O. O.
Some Ways of the Improvement of Ecosystems Protection and Territorial Characteristics of Hetman’s National Park
Some territorial parameters of Hetman’s national park based on quantitative criteria are estimated in this article. The appropriateness of procedures incorporation for increasing of the national park area is proved. Usefulness of measures aimed for the increasing of the area of protected object is substantiated. The woodland which is perspective for reservation and incorporation to the Hetman’s national park is characterized.
Kucher E. N.
Comparative Analysis of Vitalitet Range in Populations of Dactylorhiza Romana (Orchidaceae)
The results of perennial studying of vitalitet range are given for two populations of Dactylorhiza romana (Sebast.) Soo located on the territory of the Crimean Mountains (northern slope of the Main Ridge and western part of the Crimean South coast).